Stress Can Even Make The Dog Go Prematurely Gray

Little kids have tons of fun pulling off gray strands of hair from grandparents. Folks would say that it’s all part of aging. We will all go gray at some point in our lives whether we like it or not. But, is it true that like humans, dogs can also go prematurely gray?

Premature Graying or Progressive Graying?

Premature greying of hair or geriatric greying is linked to aging which is pretty much like what happens to human beings. However, in the case of dogs, there is another type called progressive greying which occurs in some breeds. This is said to be caused by a gene called chromosome 25 that progressively turns their shiny coats to silver or gray. Some breeds have the dominant greying gene like Bearded Collies and Poodles which causes their entire coat to turn to grey or silver.

A study on 400 dogs in Colorado, in which results were shown in Applied Animal Behavior Science showed that dogs who reportedly have higher signs of anxiety have exhibited premature graying of the muzzle as compared to other dogs that were less stressed. These gray hairs are also coined as stress highlights which are indicators of impulsiveness and anxiety in dogs. Dogs would usually grow gray hair by age 4 so anything earlier than that should be categorized as premature graying of hair.

Premature Grayness And Stress

It has been found out too that female dogs are more susceptible to premature grayness as compared to male dogs. Also, dogs who feel stressed or agitated when hearing loud noises or left at home alone were found to have more increased grayness of coat than dogs who are calmer and more at ease with their environment.

Grayness of hair does not have anything to do with the size of the dog and also with medical predicaments whatsoever. Genetics and environment too should be factored in when relating stress to grayness of hair. Stress is said to have a similar effect on mice as it hinders hair growth and it can also change hair color. In the same way, stress is also related to accelerated aging in mice. Dog owners noticed that dogs that have been exposed to stressful situations or have experienced fear and anxiety have grown grayish hair prematurely.

Keeping Your Dog Stress-Free

In order to keep the dogs physically and mentally agile and healthy, walking your dog or playing fetch will help reduce stress and keep them active. It is also recommended to create a safe zone for your pets or a specific area in your house that will provide them a sanctuary or safe haven in the event of having loud parties or when calamity strikes.

You can provide your dog a security blanket like a favorite toy or any item that would make it feel safe. Staying with your dog during stressful times will help keep it calm and secure. Enrolling your dog in a behavior modification program will also help with your dog resolving its own issues and inner conflicts that could contribute to its graying coat.

If you have brought yourself a dog, you should consider training him. In that way, your experience with your dog will become more rewarding and engaging. Aside from that, he will learn house manners and proper behavior. No one ever wanted to leave their dog in the house and come back with their messes around. Here is a basic dog training guide that every pet owner must know about:

Potty training

Before anything else, if you let your dog stay inside your house then you should teach him basic house manners. Establish a routine, stick to the schedule of your dog, and watch him carefully. A puppy will want to eliminate right after waking up, eating, and playing. If you are still not allowed to take him outside then you should provide a puppy pad instead. However, as time goes by, you should introduce the bathroom breaks to the outside of the house. You need to make sure that your puppy learns that inside the house is not the place to do his thing.

Dogs are not born to understand your language

Always remember that your dog wouldn’t be able to understand what the word “no”, “sit” and “come” means unless you show them how to do it. Instead of yelling to your dog in order to do such things, you should just show him how to do it so that they can follow you the next time around.

Provide everything he needs in your absence

You cannot keep your eyes on your puppy at all times. Therefore, if you are not there to supervise, you should make sure that you are providing him with everything he might need. In that way, you can avoid accidents. Giving your puppy the appropriate toys that he can play and chew with is important but make sure that you also pay attention to his bad habit of putting everything in his mouth. There are some pet owners that will just let their puppy destroy their stuff until the dog will grow with that bad behavior.

Give him a treat if necessary

Make sure that you are giving your puppy a treat after he had successfully obeyed what it was that you are trying to teach him about. By doing so will help your puppy to strive harder and will look forward to the good stuff. You should also let your pup know that what he is doing is right by giving him a soft praise. If you notice that your puppy is doing well even without your supervision, you should also give him a small pat on the head and some treats to get him in the mood.

These are just some of the basic training guidelines that you can start with if you wanted to train your dog. As for the pet owner, all you need is consistency, patience, and commitment in order to see the results of your effort and time invested.

Basic Dog Training Guide Every Pet Owner Should Know

Benefits In Having To Own A Pet

Pets are something special to humans. They are perfect companions and they are always there constantly for someone to love and someone to play. This can also save the loneliness and the sense of being isolated. Pets will give you unconditional and friendship. Unlike humans, pets don’t judge. They are open and loving and they will always stick to the person who provides food, love, and protection. They are very loyal and they will never let you feel loneliness ever again.

This is why people would like to have pets as their chosen companion. For pets, they can give you the reasons to do the things that you don’t normally do. They will assist you in your everyday life, they will give you the reasons to do exercise and get out the house more, they can be the reason for you to keep on living. If you are planning to have your own pet for yourself then here are some of the benefits that you should expect when having to adopt on to your household.

  • They can offer you protection in return.
  • They are perfect for children.
  • They will teach you how to be responsible.
  • They can also help lessen the stress.
  • Owning a pet can actually improve your social being and morale.
  • They make you happy and love.

These are the benefits that you should know when it comes to owning a live animal under your roof. They can actually protect you from unwanted strangers, for example, dogs are perfect for guarding your property. They can alert any intruder that might sneak around your area, scare them and protect the people within the residence. Dogs are perfect if you need someone to guard your property. Pets can also help you and your children to become responsible and develop the better understanding. Children will know what it’s like to have a pet and the responsibilities behind it, and you, yourself, will learn what it’s like to be with an animal whom you have to take care of. It will be both a learning experience for the both of you to share.

In a way, pets can actually help you relieve some of the stress and they can also bring out the positive emotions that you have such as love and care. For sure, you can see the effects that it has done to other people. How owning a pet can actually improve your social life and your morality. They can even provide you the reasons to improve your life. There are so many reasons why a pet can be a good thing. They help a lot of injured, and emotionally and mentally ill people. They give comfort and assurance. Pets will love you no matter who or what you are. These are the benefits that you find when it comes to adopting one yourself.

In the end, this is what you all wanted, right? You want someone to be your best friend, a friend whom you can always rely on.

The Right Approach to Dog Training

If you’ve ever watched a litter of pups at play, you’ll recall the pups jumped and nipped one another. Some were pushier than others. What you observed was the forming of a pecking order. The pups instinctively know that a hierarchy must be established for the survival and safety of the pack. These patterns of behavior have evolved from the wolf. By understanding these behaviors we can learn to deal effectively with domestic dogs.

When the new pup is brought into a human household the instinct does not change. It is still a member of a pack, in this case, the human pack. You must take over as leader and teach the pup that he falls below humans in his new pack. The pup will accept and be comfortable with the lowest position as long as you are a kind, strong, firm and consistent leader. To fail means the dog will assume he or she is the leader. You will find the dog will be very difficult to control. Obedience commands are the primary tool used to establish leadership. Anything your pup wants or needs must be earned by obeying a command (sit). Nothing in life is free. This is difficult because it is natural for us to give our dogs food, petting and attention without thinking about it. However, this indiscriminate attention sends the dog the message that he is the dominant member of the pack. Leaders eat first. Feed your dog after you eat. Leaders enter and exit a door first. Use a leash or command to have your dog wait until you invite your dog to follow you out the door. A dog that perceives himself as dominant over you is certainly not going to be easily trained and may cause you some serious problems. Practicing obedience commands will firmly establish you as the leader of the pack.

Dogs love to learn. Training your dog helps you gain control and gives you the ability to communicate what is, and what is not expected so that your dog can live harmoniously in your home. In teaching dogs, leadership and authority are the secrets of success. You must establish your authority and leadership and communicate with your dog in a positive manner. There are many different ways to train a dog. The old way of training used punishment and force to compel the dog to obey. Today, modern trainers have discovered a more successful and humane way of training, using positive reinforcement methods that emphasize PRAISE. “Good Dog!” This method makes training easy and enjoyable for both you and your dog. It’s more motivating for the dog and it minimizes stress. It is imperative that you use positive reinforcement with a dog adopted from a shelter. Hitting, heavy leash jerking and other forms of punishment are counterproductive. If you learn how and when to praise effectively and how to properly correct your dog, you will have at your fingertips the primary means of communication with your pet. Praise is the language of dogs — and people.

How To Train Your Dog

How To Train Your Dog In An Effective Way

Are you thinking of buying a dog and worrying about its’ training? Do you think you will not be able to train your dog yourself? Well, if the answer is yes, then this article is the one that will answer all your queries regarding training of dogs. It is true that dog training is no easy job and not that simple also as it appears to be. After all, the animal has habits and nature of its’ own and it is very difficult to change them according to our wishes. However, the task of training a dog is not so difficult either. What it requires is just patience and the right steps to follow while training the dog.

Many people have the experience of training dogs and some have mastered the art. they can connect with the animal and make it follow their instructions perfectly. They say that there are certain steps which are followed by all dogs and if they are done in the correct manner, the dogs can be trained easily. Some of the dog training tips from such people have been given below to assist in your dog training job.

Teach your dog simple thing like understanding your nods, understanding your hand movements, responding to simple sounds and other simple things by helping him do it using your hands.

Be patient and affectionate with your dog and try to understand his moods. There may be times when he does not want to obey or wants to relax. Be with him at such times and do not force him for anything.

Give proper food and drink to the animal on a fixed time, take it out for walks at a fixed time and make him relieve himself at specific places only. This would come gradually, so bear with the initial discomfort.

Be consistent in whatever you teach and the manner in which you tech. Proper timings and amounts of food, water, walk and exercise would ensure that the dog acclimatizes to the routine and etches it into its’ system.

Give freedom to the dog to roam around, have fun, play with balls and small things and run. Though initially some kind of restraint might be required, but gradually loosen the leash. This would make the dog less afraid and more obeying.

Use simple tricks like an extra biscuit for better performance, a pat on the back for following and a generous meal once in a while to keep the dog motivated and attached to you. Once it knows you fully, the dog obedience training is complete indeed.

These are the various simple ways by which you can train your dog to obey orders and be smart. A number of gadgets and devices are available in the market these days for dog training. Though they aren’t necessary at all, but still they are useful sometimes if the dogs are really naughty or the owner is having a difficult time teaching the dogs. One such device is a dog training collar.

Dog training collars are widely available in the market nowadays, in a range of sizes, colors and designs. They serve dual purpose. They are used to act as a show belt for the dogs. Also, they are used by owners to control the actions of the dogs manually. The collars have certain built in features that enable the owner who holds the collar to control the dog. They are button operated and can be used to control dogs, especially the ones who are very naughty and give their owners a hard time. These collars are often scientific ones, which understand the dog’s psychology and treat them in that fashion. The normal collars serve as decorative pieces and are used to simply guide and control the dog’s movement and speed. These collars can be highly useful in dog training as the owners can teach the dogs to respond in a particular fashion by actually making them do that act. These collars are widely being used nowadays and are cheap to buy.

Exercise and fitness

Another important aspect of dog training is to teach your do to remain fit, exercise on time, go for walks and remain active. These are necessary for maintaining good health and active lifestyle for the dog, just as is the case with humans. So you must take the dog out for walks regularly, at fixed time of the day. Teaching the dog simple exercises which are available on the internet and making it a point to teach him to do it by yourself doing it initially would greatly help in inculcating the same habit in your dog. keeping the dog active by playing with him or teaching him simple games like fetch the ball, dog and the bone and running can help in two ways- it will find you a mate for play time and will also keep the dog fit and active. thus, being a dog owner, you should be responsible for the dog’s fitness and well-being and should take all the necessary steps to ensure that the dog remains healthy and active.

These are the various ways of training a dog in efficient and effective way, which would go a long way in developing a bond between you and your dog. Dog training, though slightly difficult at first, has great benefits after it is over.

The Effects In Using Pet Allergy Medication

Did you know that not only humans can have allergies? Yes, even pets in the home can have allergies too. And the best way to treat is through pet allergy medication. Allergies are actually the most common problem that your dog may experience. The effects of allergens on them are not through nasal symptoms, but from reactions to their skin.  That is why you can usually see them scratching any parts of their body. Substances that cause allergic reaction to your pets are just the same allergens which causes allergic reaction to us such as dust, molds and pollens. The symptoms this includes are scratching, licking constantly, biting, and chewing at feet. The common areas that are affected are groins, under legs, flanks, feet and most especially in the ear.  The areas where the allergies can usually be seen are thickened and may have a strong foul odor.  Foods may also be a source of allergies.

Pet allergy medications incorporating antihistamines are very safe on dogs, but the side effect of this medication is a somewhat sedation on the animals. Another medication is the corticosteroids, it has compounds which reduces inflammation as well as itching. This medication is for extreme discomfort only because it has side effects which is known as 3P’s; polyuria means increase in urination, polyphagia means increase in hunger or appetite and polydypsia meaning increase in thirst, side effects also include changes in behavior with the long term use of corticosteroids.

Here are some all natural pet medication, such as giving your dog, or bearded dragon food rich in omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids. Omega 3 is found in fish oils while omega 6 is found in evening primrose. They have an anti-inflammatory effect that helps prevent symptoms from dry skin to sores. In addition, feeding them foods rich in detoxifying agents and supplements supports the fast healing of wounds that are acquired from continuous scratching. Keeping them clean by bathing them twice a week, until symptoms decrease, if severe, will be a big help as it will lessen the bacteria and fleas on your dog. Bathing your dog regularly will cause harm to them instead of making them healthy and clean because the normal microflora of your pets might be also removed.  If there is no normal flora left on your pet’s body, there will be no naturally agents to fight against the bad bacteria that your pet will soon get. So it is important also to use all natural pet medication for it has no side effects, it is typically a better buy.

All natural pet medication will also be found for many types of dog ailments, such as rashes, dry skin, skin allergies, arthritis, etc.  What is pet medication arthritis?  It is a medication which helps in the treatment of damaged cartilages, decreases inflammation and eases pain. Arthritis by the way is a disease same as in humans, but they should not be treated the way humans are. They have their own pet medication arthritis that is available in stores. The signs and symptoms that your pet is having arthritis are as follows: sudden change of daily routine, sleeps more, less interested during your playtime, and decreased alertness, weight gain, having sore joints because of difficulty in standing or sitting. If you suspect any of this in your pets seek advice from your veterinarian and ask help for the medications needed.

Hypothyroidism in Dogs and Choke Chains

Molly is a great dog. I tell everyone I know how great she is. I think she is the perfect mix of Labrador and blue heeler. She is a mild mannered, well behaved and a loyal friend.

We met Molly in a grocery store parking lot. There was a family sitting on the tailgate of a truck with a cardboard sign that read “FREE PUPPIES” in black marker ink. Just about the time we stepped up a little girl of about 4 years old picked Molly up. The lady holding the cardboard sign told me that Molly’s momma was a Blue Heeler and they think daddy was the neighbor’s black lab. She continued to tell me that if they couldn’t find homes for all the puppies they would have to take them to the shelter. After hearing this, a man picked up a little black male puppy and delivered him to his wife and child waiting in the car. The little girl holding Molly pleaded to her daddy “Can we take her home?” Daddy replied that they would wait until mommy came out of the store to let her decide. I left my phone number with the family on tailgate and said to them “If mom says no, call me and I will come get her”. We drove off chatting about how cute she was and soon forgot the whole event. As soon as we pulled up to our house my phone started to ring, it was her. We rushed to unload the groceries and I hurried back to the store to pick her up. As a puppy she was the sweetest dog. She did jump up some and was a little mouthy in the beginning but with some redirection and a few well intentioned “no”‘s she quickly overcame those behaviors.

Molly had a blooming social life at a young age. Before her first birthday, she  had been to meet all the family at their houses including barbecues, trips to the lake and sleepovers. She had gone to countless parks and festivals. Everywhere she went, she wore a choke chain. We spent many hours taking walks and when we did, we would work on her loose leash walking using the choke chain. When she pulled at the end of the leash, she would get a swift jerk of the leash. On days I was in too much of a hurry to train her, she would just pull against the leash trying to reach her destination as fast as possible, choking herself the entire way.

It never felt good to me to have to choke my dog on a walk to try to make it more enjoyable for both of us. I had never taken the time to enjoy the practice of really training my dog, I only tried to find the quickest training solution available. Nowadays, Molly is a very good dog who follows commands and does exactly what she is told to do, but I know that there was a less harsh way to train her on the leash.

Over the past few years, Molly has put on some extra weight but we had always looked at it as just being overweight until one simple question. Has she been tested for hypothyroidism? Well, that explains it. It seemed like a no-brainer when the vet said it. Over the past year Molly has put on 20 lbs. despite our efforts to put her one a diet. She moves around a whole lot less lately. When she is awake she either stands or lays down now and I assume it is because it is uncomfortable for her front legs to support her weight when she is sitting. She seems a little grumpy at things that haven’t bothered her before but I blamed it on her aging. We now know that the truth is she has a medical condition causing her to be uncomfortable.

I do not know that the choke chain was the sole cause of her hypothyroidism, and that it could be breed related, but I feel like I played a part in giving my dog her illness. It seems like anyone could see the connection when they have the slightest knowledge of a dog’s tracheal anatomy. The thyroid is located just below the voice box near the trachea and controls a dog’s metabolism. When Molly would pull on her leash the choke chain would squeeze on her neck near the thyroid gland, potentially causing damage.

Luckily, the treatment for hypothyroidism in dogs is inexpensive, but it will be lifelong. I am happy that, in a few months, Molly will feel much better. I know that I will never, ever again use a choke collar or any type of equipment that will potentially cause trauma to my pets.

If you agree, please share to spread the word on how important it is to use non-traumatic training tools.

How To Identify Lyme Disease In Dogs

Is your dog experiencing lameness, high fever, muscle and/or joint pain, and swollen lymph glands? If yes, you should seek advice from your veterinarian as those are dog parasites symptoms. Those symptoms could be the first manifestations or the first symptoms of Lyme disease. You should be very observant of your dog’s actions and conditions because these may indicate a disease or illness that needs prompt medical attention and treatment.

What is Lyme disease?

Lyme disease is a bacterial infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is a corkscrew-shaped bacterium known as spirochete. Dogs become infected with Lyme disease because the bacteria are transmitted to the dog’s blood due to a tick bite.  The ticks are called Ixodes, also known as deer ticks. If the tick should remain attached to the dog’s skin for at least 24 hours, there is a good chance the bacteria will be transmitted to the dog.

Lyme disease was first known in Lyme, Connecticut in United States on 1975. Lyme disease is generally found in the Northeastern States, upper Mississippi region, California, and some areas in the South.  Lyme disease can cause detrimental effects to your dog if not given quick intervention and treatment. Thus, it is very important for you to determine the first symptoms of Lyme disease.

How can Lyme disease be diagnosed?

Lyme disease can be diagnosed by physical examination, medical history, and blood tests. The veterinarian will draw out some blood and will perform blood tests to check if the dog has been exposed to Borrelia burgdorferi. If your dog has been vaccinated for the prevention of Lyme disease, a special blood test will be performed.  The most common blood test used to confirm Lyme disease is ELISA test and western blot test is also used after ELISA as a follow-up test.

The veterinarian will also assess your dog’s status and what symptoms it manifests. Identification of symptoms will help the veterinarian to make a diagnosis if your dog manifest early Lyme disease symptoms, early disseminated Lyme disease or chronic Lyme disease symptoms.

What are the symptoms of Lyme disease?

There are three stages of Lyme disease, and each stage has various symptoms that will guide the veterinarians in diagnosing Lyme disease. As a dog owner, you have to know the basic dog parasites symptoms so that you can detect early if your dog has Lyme disease.

Early Lyme disease- is the first stage in Lyme disease and its symptoms usually appears several days or weeks after exposure to the bacteria. Early Lyme disease symptoms include one or more of the following:

  • Chills and fever
  • Fatigue or lameness
  • Muscle and/or joint pain
  • Headache
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Skin rash (Erythema migraines)

Early Disseminated Lyme disease- is the second stage in Lyme disease, and the symptoms occur several weeks to months after the tick has bitten your dog. The symptoms in this stage are manifested because the bacteria are spreading throughout the body, and it begins to infect certain parts of the body. Early Disseminated Lyme disease symptoms include:

  • Facial paralysis on one side of the face
  • Fever, stiff neck, and severe headache
  • (Meningitis)Pain in the legs or body

Chronic Lyme disease- is the third stage of Lyme disease, and its symptoms appear weeks or even years after infection. The following symptoms occur when the antibiotic has not completely eradicated the bacteria or the dog has not received any treatment. Chronic Lyme disease symptoms include:

  • Joint swelling
  • Chronic pain in muscles
  • Neurological disorders


A Review On Dog Skin Cancer Symptoms

Canine skin cancer has a higher rate than in humans.  It usually occurs in dogs that are middle age and up, though puppies have skin cancer too but in very low rates.  About 20-30 percent of dogs having tumors are malignant and the rest are benign.  Benign tumors grow slowly and others may not really grow or change, they rarely cause pain, and are removable.  On the other hand malignant tumors are very fast growers, and by the time they are noticeable the dog skin cancer symptoms are already progressing.

Here’s the list of benign skin tumors


They are fatty tumors and mostly common on soft skin in dogs.  They are removed by needle aspiration though it is not necessary to remove it unless your dog is not comfortable with it.


Also known as dog warts. They are smaller than lipomas but firm.   They are usually caused by a virus.   They are common in puppies but usually disappear as the puppies mature.   It can be removed by needle aspiration.   For fingerlike warts there is usually nothing to worry about.


They are the most common skin tumors in dogs.  They can be malignant or benign. About 85 percent melanomas are benign.Others- are wax gland cyst (adenoma), basal cell tumor, and hair follicle tumor.

Malignant skin tumor


The most common skin cancer on dogs.  It starts in the cells then surrounds the organ completely.  This carcinoma looks like a non-healing wound on a dog. The breeds that are prone to this cancer are Shih Tzu’s, Standard Poodles, Mastiffs, Basset Hounds and Blood Hounds.  The treatment needed is surgery.  If surgery is not possible radiation therapy can also be a choice.


It usually arises from mast cells that are malignant.  They are known as “great imitators” for the reason that they copy the appearance of benign lesions.


A soft tissue that surrounds the blood vessel.  They are classified as dermal or subcutaneous or underneath the skin.  The dermal hemangiosarcoma appears to be red or black in color while subcutaneous are soft and movable.


Also a soft tissue tumor that arises from the fibrous connective tissue of the skull, spine, pelvis and ribs.  They are common on old male dogs.

Dog skin cancer symptoms can include lumps.  They might be red or flaky in appearance.  Canine skin cancer results in itching, this is why dogs won’t stop chewing and scratching the affected area.  Dog skin cancer symptoms depend on the location of tumor, the type of cancer and if it metastasized.

  • Systemic dog skin cancer symptoms are:
  • Lack of appetite
  • Vomiting can be bloody or not
  • Abnormally sleepy or lethargic
  • CoughingWounds that do not heal
  • Sudden enlargement of lymph nodes


Dog Health Insurance

Dogs are man’s best friend, and they are treated as a member of the family. Dogs have specific needs as well, and as they grow up their needs rise up. They can become financial burden to you if you do not plan ahead, and dog health insurance is the answer to your problem. Insurance will help you in managing your payments that you can possibly encounter when raising a dog. You should always keep in mind that raising a dog is a responsibility that you should accept and providing properly for all its needs are very important.

Health insurance for dog is very helpful to you as your dog may encounter different health challenges. Puppies need several vaccinations, and as they grow there might be accidents or diseases that may require you to send them to the veterinarian for proper management. Dog health insurance guarantees the well-being and healthy future of your dog.

If you are looking for dog health insurance pet protection, you can surf the internet to look for an insurance company for your pet or you can ask some of your friends who have already insured their dogs.

Here are some tips that will help you in choosing the appropriate health insurance for dog:

1) You must know the background of the insurance company.

You must not sign up with the first insurance company that you find. You should do your research and get to know it and the benefits that your dog can avail from it. It is very necessary to choose an insurance company that has been serving pet owners and their pets for quite some time. This will give you a hint that this insurance company is serving its clients well. This is one way to be sure of enjoying continued service from a provider.  If possible, you should also take a look at the feedback from its members.

2) You should be able to identify how much will you be paying for the insurance for your dog.

First, you have to inquire about the total cost, or scheduled payments for the insurance and any terms.  This will guide you in the proper payment of the insurance so that you will not miss paying for it and your dog can avail the benefits whenever necessary. This will also prepare you ahead of time for the required disbursement.

3) Determine the details of what will be covered in your pet’s insurance.

It is very important as well to identify what will be covered to your dog’s insurance so that if your dog needs vaccination or hospitalization, your dog can readily avail it. Another advantage is that you have removed any unforeseen financial burden by planning ahead.

Be sure to know what will be the exclusions of the insurance.  Determining the exclusions of the insurance is also necessary. This will you prepare in advance of the payment for the diagnostic test, surgeries, checkups, or medications that may not be covered by the insurance.